The Baborów Sugar Plant ANG
The Baborów Sugar Plant
The sugar factories were established in the areas of fertile loess soils, where the cultivation of sugar beet was developed on a large scale. Such a convenient place was, among others Baborów. A city located in the southern part of Upper Silesia, where the cultivation of sugar beets has developed for many years. In 1870, the Allgemenie Gesellschaft company (growers' association) started building a sugar factory. It was completed in 1872. That year, the first campaign was carried out, which started every year from mid-to-late October. As early as 1872, a fire broke out, which partially incinerated the raw material, but the damage was repaired relatively quickly. In the years 1872-1924 the "Baborów" sugar factory mainly produced white sugar in the shape of cubes and heads. As a result of another fire, which took place in 1895, the warehouse in which the sugar in barrels was stored was burnt.
In Baborów itself, employment in 1907 was 66 people in total, including 50 steel workers and the rest seasonal workers. The rapid and dynamic development of the Baborów sugar plant was stopped by the outbreak of World War I. As a result of post-war inflation, it ran into financial difficulties. In 1923 it was purchased by a Czech citizen, Dr. Janota from Opava.
In 1924, the sugar factory was adapted to the production of yellow sugar, almost all of its production was exported to the Rhineland, where it was processed into white sugar. At the same time, the sugar mill's processing capacity increased from 5,000 to 7,000 hundredweight (350 tons) per day. In the 1930s, an average of 1,300,000 hundredweights of beet (65,000 tons) were processed during one campaign, which lasted about 10 weeks, of which 200,000 hundredweights of sugar (10,000 tons) were obtained. For example, in the 1933 campaign, 750,000 tonnes of sugar beet were processed.
Beets from Baborowo and the surrounding villages as well as Głubczyce poviat, less from Racibórz and Koźle poviats were brought to the sugar factory.
In 1935, the Nazi authorities for political reasons removed Dr. Janota from the sugar factory, transforming the local company and including it in the "Ostdeutscher Zuckerfabriken GmbH" concern in Wrocław, in which it was associated until 1945. In 1935, the factory worked in three shifts. 360 people were employed, and in the field an additional 170 workers were reloaded.
Until 1937, equipment for beet processing and sugar production was operated by steam engines. After 1937, more modern machines powered by electricity were installed in the plant. This resulted in an increase in beet processing from 7,000 to 10,000 per day. During World War II, 100 Soviet prisoners of war worked in the sugar factory.
During the war in 1945 and shortly after the end of the war, the Opole sugar factories were partially destroyed and dismantled. After the war, only 5 out of 9 plants in Opole Silesia, including the sugar factory in Baborów, were opened. As a result of combat operations, it was destroyed in almost 50%. The roof over the raw material and the product room as well as the mechanical and technological devices were completely destroyed. The remains of the surviving sugar equipment were used in the reconstruction of the plant. The factory chimney, damaged by artillery shells, was destroyed. The same was true of the boiler room, which was 70% destroyed. The sugar warehouse was completely burnt. There was no roof in the molasses hall. The warehouse and the melter pot were destroyed in 35%. The machinery stock was completely incomplete. Immediately after the end of hostilities, the main effort was devoted to building a factory and sugar beet plantation.
In March 1945, after the city was occupied by the Red Army, the Russians also manned the sugar factory. Part of the damage caused must be credited to their account. The facility was handed over to the Polish authorities by the war commander of Głubczyce, Lt. Vasyl Baryonyv. Wacław Leśniewski was designated to take over the sugar factory on behalf of the Central Board of the Sugar Industry, who from May 1945 until the end of 1956 was the managing director.
There were a lot of problems with the reconstruction of the plant. First of all, it was necessary to complete and rebuild the staff of employees and professionals who know the issues of sugar industry. Other difficulties of the plant occurring in the post-war period include the lack of transport rolling stock, and thus problems with communication with distant plantation points. Another problem that made itself felt was the lack of apartments, a hotel and a canteen for seasonal workers. In 1946, in order to improve the social and living conditions, a barrack for 50-60 people was built.
From May 1945, renovation works were carried out to prepare the sugar factories for the campaign. For its reconstruction in February 1946, the Union of the Sugar Industry Opole-Silesia spent almost PLN 3 million. 400 people worked on the reconstruction of the sugar factory. The first workers and professionals were repatriates and local workers.
The first post-war campaign in the "BAWORÓW" sugar factory, as the present town of Baborów was called in the first post-war months of the Polish administration, began on November 17, 1946 and lasted until February 10, 1947. White sugar was produced with a daily processing of approx. 10,000 quintals of beets. During the first post-war 86-day beet campaign, 4,746 tons of white sugar were produced, the beet cultivation acreage was 1,596 ha, 37,119 tons were processed, production losses amounted to 3.14%, and the average beet yield was 227 g / ha. The total employment was 534 people. In 1945-1947, the beet yield per 1 ha was low. This was due to a natural disaster that was the plague of mice.
From 1950, the "Baborów" sugar factory, as part of international cooperation, carried out an exchange with the Czech sugar factory "Opawa".
The "Baborów" sugar plant in the years 1950 - 1990 was the center of economic and cultural life in the town and commune of Baborów. There were sections: drama, choreography, recitation, philatelic, chess. There was a choir and an orchestra. In 1946, a club was established at the Sugar Factory. Sports "Cukrownik".
Along with the modernization of the "Baborów" Sugar Factory, the construction of the "Cukrownik" Workers' Hotel was started, which was put into operation in 1967. It could accommodate about 150 people - seasonal workers. In the years 1947-1997, 13 major modernizations were carried out in the plant. a biological wastewater treatment plant in 1997. In the beetroot campaign 1998-1999, the daily processing of beet was 1,300 tons, sugar production 16,000 tons, pulp production 60,000 tons. The plantation area in this campaign was 3,800 ha. which took place on June 1, 1995. In the beetroot campaign 1999-2000 it was planned to reduce the beet plantation acreage to 100,000 tons, which was related to numerous financial problems of the plant, and thus the reduction of sugar production. Cukrowa SA There were growing concerns about the imminent collapse of this plant.
In 2002, the last sugar beet campaign took place. After its completion, most of the working and later office staff were dismissed. In 2004, after 132 years of its existence, the factory ended its operations. It was closed and sold.
Modyfikował(a): Andrzej Reja Data modyfikacji: 12-08-2021 15:22